Leer en: Español

Stem Cells in Focus

Exploring Endogenous Heart Repair and Regeneration

By Maya Chaddah | February 13, 2014
Expert Contributor: Deepak Srivastava, MD

For the millions of people who suffer from heart attacks every year, the aftereffects are literally scarring. When the heart muscle dies from lack of blood, it is replaced by scar tissue, since the heart has very little regenerative capacity. While better medical care and timely management of heart attacks have decreased the number of early deaths, survivors face an increased risk of chronic heart failure as they develop even more scarring. This grim prospect is what stem cell scientists, like Dr. Deepak Srivastava, Director of Cardiovascular Disease and the Stem Cell Center at the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, are hoping to change.

Stem Cells in Focus Webcast

An Introduction to Endogenous Heart Repair

Deepak Srivastava, MD, Gladstone Institutes, USA

Learn more about the research and its potential, and pose your questions directly to Dr. Srivastava, during a live public webcast, Thursday, February 20 at 2 pm ET (USA).

They plan to fix the heart from the inside – a strategy called endogenous (self) repair – by stimulating resident heart cells to generate new cardiomyocytes, the specialized heart muscle cells that keep our hearts beating.

But why does the heart need help regenerating in the first place? Well, scientists used to think that our heart muscle cells were with us for life. It turns out, by the time we reach the age of 50, approximately half of all the cells in the heart aren’t the ones we were born with. While this is welcome proof that the heart can regenerate enough to maintain itself, the slow rate of turnover – about 0.5 to 1% per year – is far too low to repair damaged heart muscle.

The source for new muscle cells for heart turnover is still a black box. There might be a pool of heart stem cells that slowly churn out new muscle cells. Or that might be the role of stem cells circulating in the blood that set up shop in the heart. Or there may be unknown factors that trigger existing heart muscle cells to multiply. These theories are all being explored.

 One of the reasons that scientists have turned to endogenous repair for answers, is that clinical trials transplanting adult stem cells from a variety of sources have not panned out as hoped. While the safety profiles have been encouraging, the level of heart recovery has been minimal at best. Scientists are not yet sure why, but they are exploring the possibilities around increasing stem cell survival, expanding the numbers of patient-derived stem cells, and finding agents that can attract stem cells to damaged heart tissue for future trials. 

But is there any evidence for endogenous repair of the heart? This area of research is in early days, but the answer seems to be yes: there are internal switches that can kick start heart muscle cells in newborn mice; there are heart cells in newly born mammals that look like they might be able to make new heart muscle; and there are experiments showing how non-muscle cells in the heart can be coopted to become heart muscle cells.

An example of a heart muscle cell that was created from a reprogrammed fibroblast. A protein specific to heart muscles is visualized by the green fluorescence.

The last example brings us back to Dr. Srivastava’s approach. His team is the first to show that fibroblasts, structural support cells found throughout the body, can be directly converted, or reprogrammed, into heart muscle cells. Figuring out the conversion process was no simple task. First, they identified a pool of 14 different factors known to be used by nature to make a heart in an embryo. Then they painstakingly whittled the number down to three essential factors. Finally, they introduced the factors into fibroblasts by way of a virus delivery system and found that the three factors were enough to convert the fibroblasts into cells that looked very much like heart muscle. In mice with heart damage similar to a heart attack in humans, the three factors not only created new muscle, but also improved the pumping of the heart. This reprogramming process is novel because it triggers the conversion of one specialized cell directly into another specialized cell, without first being forced to become a stem cell.

Having shown that it’s possible to directly reprogram mouse fibroblasts (in a dish and in adult hearts) and also human heart fibroblasts in a dish, Dr. Srivastava’s group is testing the recipe in pigs, whose heart size and physiology is closer to our own.

So what are some of the pros and cons of direct reprogramming? A big plus is that this represents a new way to fix damaged heart tissue - and since the heart is over 50% fibroblasts, there are ample cells to reprogram. The major issue is safety: there is always the chance of causing tumors when using virus delivery systems. Many researchers are trying to find ways around this; one possibility is identifying small drug-like molecules that could replace the reprogramming-factor / virus delivery combination. Dr. Srivastava’s main concern is the risk of irregular heartbeats that could happen if the newly made heart muscle cells, located in patchy, scarred areas of the heart, start beating out of sync because they are not able to connect with existing heart muscle cells.

In the best of all worlds, Dr. Srivastava estimates the direct reprogramming approach might reach clinical trials within five years. The first trials would primarily assess safety but would also begin to probe what really happens inside a human heart, perhaps through testing in patients scheduled for heart transplantation, allowing scientists to study their old hearts post-transplant. While such trials are well into the future, the possibility of repairing the heart via direct reprogramming does offer some much needed hope for all those who face the prospect of heart failure.

59 comments

Leave a comment
  1. gut | Jan 16, 2018
  2. BachJohann | Jan 15, 2018
    I as of late ran over your online journal and have been perusing along.  who is chuck hildebrant
  3. acer customer support | Jan 15, 2018
  4. sirking79 | Jan 13, 2018
    I think this is a really good article.  You make this information interesting and engaging.  You give readers a lot to think about and I appreciate that kind of writing. Questions to Ask a Guy
  5. bBlackMen | Jan 13, 2018
    Thank you very much for the sharing! COOL... ESR5
  6. bringka | Jan 12, 2018
    I’m really impressed with your writing skills and alsowith the layout on your weblog. Is thiss a paidtheme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rarfe tosee a nice blog like this one nowa days produk walatra
  7. sirking79 | Jan 12, 2018
    Great  post, you have pointed out some  fantastic  points , I  likewise  think  this s a very  wonderful website. Benefits of Cucumber
  8. charlieputh | Jan 12, 2018
    I appreciate this work amazing post for us I like it. Make My Marketing Assignments  I’m really impressed with your article, such great & usefull knowledge you mentioned here
  9. Jerry kane | Jan 11, 2018
    I personally like your post; you have shared good insights and experiences. Keep it up. Buy MYOB Accounting Assignment Help
  10. Ananya | Jan 11, 2018
    Hello, Nice, this is a very impressive blog post.I read this, Get good information and very amazing it.So many people like and me.so Please send next blog post us.Thank you for sharing the post with us Call Girl in Dwarka
  11. yya | Jan 10, 2018
    OBAT STROKE yang sangat ampuh untuk penyakit stroke bisamenggunakan OBAT STROKE herbal.  OBAT STROKE yang terbuat dari herbal sangat ampuh dala mengatasi penyakit stroke, karena OBAT STROKE herbal terbuat dari ramuan herbal terpercaya sehingga menjadikan OBAT STROKE herbal menjadi salah satu OBAT STROKE yang sangat bagus dan juga OBAT STROKE yang ampuh. Banyak manfaat yang terkandung dalam OBAT STROKE tradisional, yaitu OBAT STROKE tradisional  tidak memiliki efek samping, OBAT STROKE tradisional 100% Alami OBAT STROKE
  12. wawa | Jan 10, 2018
    OBAT ASAM URAT yang ampuh mengatasi asam urat yaitu OBAT ASAM URAT yang terbuat dari herbal. Dengan OBAT ASAM URAT herbal,penyakit asamurat akut akan segera sembuh kaena OBAT ASAM URAT herbal terbuat dari ramuan treadisional yang diektrak sehingga menghasilkan OBAT ASAM URAT. OBAT ASAM URAT yang mujarab dalam mengatasi asam urat, serta keunggulan dari OBAT ASAM URAT alami ini mampu mengobati asam urat tanpa efek samping.itu adalah keunggulan dari OBAT ASAM URAT yang terbuat dari tradisional alami OBAT ASAM URAT ampuh. Semoga info mengenai OBAT ASAM URAT dapat bermanfaat bagi penderita yang sedang mencari OBAT ASAM URAT herbal alami OBAT ASAM URAT
  13. sasa | Jan 10, 2018
    Obat Hernia Anak Dan Dewasa Paling Mempan Tanpa Operasi adalah jalan yang diinginkan dalam mengobati hernia. Pengobatan dengan Obat Hernia Yang Sangat Efektif Menghilangkan Benjolan sangat bermanfaat menghilangkan benjolan atau hernia dapat dilakukan dengan Obat Hernia Makbul Yang Akan Melenyapkan Permasalahannya. Semua masalah terkait penyakit hernia dapat diatasi tanpa takut efek samping karena Obat Hernia Yahud Pemberi Kesembuhan Pada Anak Dan Dewasa terbuat dari bahan alami yang sangat ampuh sehingga menjadikan Obat Hernia Cespleng Yang Tidak Bisa Dipandang Sebelah Mata karena khasiat yang dikandungnya sangat efektif dalam mengatasi hernia dengan Obat Hernia Paling Sakti Menyembuhkan Hernia Tanpa Operasi, jika Anda tidak ingin pengobatan dengan operasi, Obat Hernia Yang Sudah Melalang Buana Di Seluruh Nusantara dapat menjadi referensi pengobatan hernia Obat Hernia Ampuh Dengan Kemujaraban Yang Sangat Luar Biasa
  14. sasa | Jan 10, 2018
    Obat Hernia Anak Dan Dewasa Paling Mempan Tanpa Operasi adalah jalan yang diinginkan dalam mengobati hernia. Pengobatan dengan Obat Hernia Yang Sangat Efektif Menghilangkan Benjolan sangat bermanfaat menghilangkan benjolan atau hernia dapat dilakukan dengan Obat Hernia Makbul Yang Akan Melenyapkan Permasalahannya. Semua masalah terkait penyakit hernia dapat diatasi tanpa takut efek samping karena Obat Hernia Yahud Pemberi Kesembuhan Pada Anak Dan Dewasa terbuat dari bahan alami yang sangat ampuh sehingga menjadikan Obat Hernia Cespleng Yang Tidak Bisa Dipandang Sebelah Mata karena khasiat yang dikandungnya sangat efektif dalam mengatasi hernia dengan Obat Hernia Paling Sakti Menyembuhkan Hernia Tanpa Operasi, jika Anda tidak ingin pengobatan dengan operasi, Obat Hernia Yang Sudah Melalang Buana Di Seluruh Nusantara dapat menjadi referensi pengobatan hernia Obat Hernia Ampuh Dengan Kemujaraban Yang Sangat Luar Biasa
  15. Harry | Jan 10, 2018
    We are Apple service provider If you have any query related Apple services then contact us. Apple Customer Support
  16. jackvina | Jan 09, 2018

    AVG Support Numbers +1-855-560-0666 (toll-free) is an independent company which offers online technical support for all IT related issues like email, antivirus, router, computer, printer etc. AVG Support Numbers is available 24/7, 365 days.

    http://avgsupportnumbers.com/

  17. Daniel Winten | Jan 09, 2018


     
  18. Rose Marry | Jan 09, 2018
    Technology has become an integral part of our lives. Human beings relay on technology more than any thing in this world and we have given meanings & name to the technology. Each dimension of the technology has got it’s own name, For us technology can be categorized in hardware & software’s.When it comes to an issue, It happens in both the dimensions.QuickBooks payroll phone number QuickBooks payroll support phone number
  19. Kabin Smith | Jan 09, 2018
    This error is related to QuickBooks Payroll update when you are unable to download latest update on your QuickBooks. This error comes because of QBDagent. 1800 961 9635.QuickBooks payroll phone number QuickBooks payroll support phone number
  20. jolinamcconaughey | Jan 08, 2018
    One reason that specialists have swung to endogenous repair for answers, is that clinical trials transplanting grown-up undifferentiated living beings from Dissertation Writing Service a grouping of sources have not worked out as trusted.

  21. brucebrennan | Jan 08, 2018

    They intend to settle the heart from within – a technique called endogenous (self) repair – by animating inhabitant heart cells to create new cardiomyocytes, the particular heart muscle cells that keep our hearts pulsating. Dissertation Writing

  22. warrenzephaniah | Jan 08, 2018
    One reason that researchers have swung to endogenous repair for answers, is that clinical trials transplanting grown-up immature microorganisms from an assortment of sources have not worked out as trusted.  Dissertation
  23. BlackMen | Jan 08, 2018
    Much obliged to you for some other instructive site. The spot else might just I get that sort of data written in such a flawless strategy? I have an endeavor that I am basically now running on, and I've been at the look out for such information.  IVA mortgage
  24. charlieputh | Jan 06, 2018
    Science Channel’s are giving a complete knowledge to its viewers about every thing students write done dissertation on this subjects and show its importance. Marketing Project Help Service
  25. Jerry kane | Jan 05, 2018
    Such a nice post, keep up the fantastic work Online MYOB Accounting Homework Help This site and the resources you provide is really nice keep it up.
  26. matlab expert | Jan 04, 2018
    Such a nice post, keep up the fantastic workmatlab expert
  27. Ankita | Jan 02, 2018

    I appreciate it!. I really like it when people get together and share ideas. Great website, continue the good work!. Either way, great web and I look forward to seeing it grow over time read more. Escorts in DehradunCall Girls in DehradunCall Girls in GoaEscorts in DelhiEscorts in DelhiDelhi EscortsDelhi Call Girls

  28. neiljakson | Dec 29, 2017

    Your post is incredibly fantastic with a lot of interesting information and impressive posting style. I appreciate you for the sharing of this great post

      dissertation  Writing Services

  29. Sahil | Dec 29, 2017
  30. Economics Assignments Help | Dec 28, 2017
    My friend recommended this blog and he was totally right keep up the good work Economics Assignments Help
  31. rydy | Dec 27, 2017
  32. nania | Dec 27, 2017
  33. krisjon | Dec 27, 2017
    Produk akhir dari beton  adalah sebuah panel beton atau kunjungi halaman ini. Di mana panel beton memiliki luasan besar yang memudahkan proses erecting dalam konstruksi bangunan. Perlu diketahui bahwa beton pracetak atau  klik disini  merupakan sebuah teknologi pengolahan material menggunakan cetakan. Cara pemasangan panel yaitu menggunakan sambungan-sambungan yang akan dikaitkan menggunakan baut. Jenis beton precast  ini dicetak menggunakan alat berteknologi canggih yang dapat mengatur komposisi dan kekuatan beton sedemikian rupa sehingga menjadi akurat dan presisi. Tidak seperti beton ready mix, produk beton ini  tidak tergantung dengan cuaca. Untuk penggunaan beton pracetak  tidak perlu menunggu kematangan beton. Paving Block memiliki variasi desain, tipe, warna, dan motif yang berbeda. Namun dibandingkan aspal dan beton, harga yang ditawarkan untuk harga paving block 2018 lebih murah. Anda hanya perlu menyesuaikan kualitas, tipe, dan model konblok yang akan dibeli dengan kemampuan anggaran yang tersedia. Sebagai catatan, harga paving block akan tergantung oleh faktor spesifikasi produk ini .  Paving cenderung akan mengurangi kenyamanan bagi pengendara kendaraan yang melaju dengan kecepatan tinggi. Conblock sangat jarang mengalami lubang pada permukaaannya. Namun beruntungnya, apabila suatu saat terjadi kerusakan pada harga terbaru produk ini, perbaikan dapat dilakukan dengan sangat mudah. Buis beton  juga disebut dengan hong atau gorong-gorong merupakan sebuah bahan konstruksi dari beton yang dibuat sedemikian rupa. Harga buis beton 2018 juga digunakan pada saluran terbuka dengan cara memproduksi separuh bulatan. Namun dalam praktiknya, buis beton atau harga produk murah  tanpa tulang lebih populer digunakan dibandingkan buis beton dengan tulang. Pemakaian dari produk dan harga terbarunya  yang tidak bertulang semakin meluas,ini dikarenakan produsen buis beton tak betulang ini tidak membutuhkan modal besar.
  34. Antonio kim | Dec 22, 2017
    This blog offers us useful suggestions due to the very confined regenerative capability of the adult mammalian coronary heart, illnesses that result in cardiomyocyte death, which include myocardial infarction, can have devastating outcomes for organ characteristic. Harley Davidson Jacket
  35. Alex Parkins | Dec 20, 2017
    QuickBooks Enterprise edition is the most robust version of QuickBooks as it allows up to 30 simultaneous users to work in a particular company file at a time. If you have multiple company files you can also open a secondary company and work on it side by side while you work in your main company file.Quickbooks Enterprise Phone Number|Quickbooks Enterprise Support Phone Number|Quickbooks Enterprise Tech Support Phone Number|Quickbooks Enterprise Technical Support Phone Number|Quickbooks Enterprise Customer Service Phone Number|Quickbooks Enterprise Customer Support Phone Number
  36. DANIEL WINTEN | Dec 18, 2017
    WOW, It is awesome blog, I would happy to say that, I also have one of the big websites of Quickbooks accounting softwere. you can reach out to fix quickbooks online support & quickbooks error.we have Qualified technicians available 24 hours to handle data crash , data recovery , data loss , Quickbooks migration issue efficiently.So call our Quickbooks online Phone Number and get instant support by our technical expert.
  37. Philadelphia University | Dec 17, 2017
    I am genuinely thankful to the holder of this web page who has shared this wonderful paragraph at at this place Philadelphia University
  38. Peter Wilson | Dec 15, 2017
    Outsourcing QuickBook Accounting improves financial operations, as well as reducing risks and costs as well as increasing the level of efficiency. There are many QuickBook accounting service providers who meet small and medium businesses worldwide.QuickBooks Tech Support Number | QuickBooks customer Support Number | QuickBooks customer service Number | QuickBooks helpline number.
  39. heena | Dec 15, 2017
    A good blog always comes-up with new and exciting information and while reading I have feel that this blog is really have all those quality that qualify a blog to be a one free gift card generator
  40. Call support number | Dec 13, 2017
    Call support number for technical support on all computer issues. Get instant resolution for all technical concerns via phone. Contact +1-855-999-4377 dell support, hp support, Netgear Support Number, linksys support, Cisco Support Number, Hotmail Phone Number, Yahoo Mail Customer Service Number, Microsoft Phone Number, norton support, mcafee support, Dragon Phone Number, Adobe Phone Number, Epson Printer Tech Support Phone Number, Call Support Number, toshiba support, bitdefender discount coupon, kaspersky renewal, norton renewal, trend micro best buy, asus support,   dell customer service, hp printer support, Netgear Phone Number, linksys customer support, Cisco Contact Centre, Hotmail Customer Service Number, Yahoo Mail Customer Service Phone Number, Microsoft Number, norton customer service, mcafee customer service, dragon naturally speaking support, Adobe Support Number, Epson Support Number, Call Phone Number, toshiba customer service, bitdefender discount, best buy Kaspersky, norton 360 renewal, trend micro renewal, asus customer service,   dell tech support, hp support assistant, Netgear Contact Number, linksys tech support, Cisco Phone Number, Hotmail Contact Number, Yahoo Mail Phone Number, mcafee phone number, norton phone number, McAfee Support Number, call dragon, Adobe Customer Service Number, Epson Printer Support Phone Number, Contact Support Number, toshiba laptop support, bitdefender salekaspersky deals, norton 360 deals, best buy trend micro, asus tech support,   dell support chat, hp tech support, Netgear Customer Service Number, linksys customer service, Cisco Tech Support Number, Hotmail Support Phone Number, Yahoo Mail Contact Number, Microsoft Customer Service Number, norton antivirus phone number, mcafee phone support, nuance customer service, Adobe Support Phone Number, Epson Printer Customer Service Phone Number, Call Customer Service Number, toshiba tech support, bitdefender dealskaspersky best buy, norton discount code, renew trend micro, asus laptop support,   dell support phone number, hp support number, Netgear Support Phone Number, linksys support number, Cisco Contact Centre Express, Hotmail Support Number, Yahoo Mail Support Number, Microsoft Tech Support Phone Number, norton 360 support, mcafee support number, dragon support, Adobe Contact Number, Epson Technical Support Phone Number, Contact Technical Support Number, support Toshiba, buy bitdefender, kaspersky discount, buy norton 360, trend micro discount, asus support number
  41. Poultry Feed | Dec 13, 2017
    Wide range of Feed Supplements to ensure healthy growth of livestock and increase in productivity. Feel free to call for a consultation. poultry feed broiler feed broiler feed formulation hen feed poultry feed formulation poultry feed ingredients poultry feed supplements poultry farming business plan list of poultry feed manufacturers in india poultry farm management poultry feed manufacturers poultry feed manufacturers in india poultry management broiler chicken feed food for chicks chicken supplies chelated minerals Poultry Liver supplement toxin binder for poultry toxin binder for poultry feed toxin binder poultry feed fungal diseases in poultry fungal diseases of poultry fungal infection in chickens chicken fungal infection broiler chicken weight gain broiler weight gain medicine broiler weight gain tips chicken antibiotics for respiratory infections heat stress in poultry heat stress management in poultry chicken heat stress chicken heat stroke chicken feed food for chickens best feed for chickens best chicken feed best chicken feed for egg layers best chicken feed for eggs acidified copper sulfate for chickens acidified copper sulfate poultry best vitamins for chickens calcium for chickens calcium supplements for chickens chicken calcium supplement dog supplements pet products best dog vitamins best joint supplement for dogs, cattle feed, animal feed, animal feed manufacturers, animal feed supplement, animal supplements, Pig Feed Formula, Pig Feed Price, Pig Feeding Guide, Goat Feed, Goat Feed Formula, Goat Food
  42. Quicken support | Dec 13, 2017
  43. Quick book number | Dec 13, 2017
  44. Microsoft number | Dec 13, 2017
    Microsoft Support is here to help. Contact Microsoft Support by phone for technical support on all Microsoft products and software. Call +1-855-999-4211 microsoft support microsoft support number call Microsoft contact Microsoft contact microsoft support microsoft support chat microsoft support phone number microsoft professional support support Microsoft call microsoft support microsoft support email phone number for microsoft support chat with microsoft support contact microsoft support phone email microsoft support, how to contact microsoft support, microsoft support center, microsoft support contact, microsoft support contact number, microsoft support help, microsoft support line, microsoft support live chat, microsoft support phone, microsoft support professional, microsoft support team, microsoft support telephone number, number for microsoft support, professional microsoft support, telephone number for Microsoft, microsoft professional support, support microsoft, windows phone support windows support number windows phone number windows tech support number windows support phone number microsoft windows support number windows activation phone number windows contact number windows customer support number windows customer service number windows number contact windows Microsoft outlook phone support outlook technical support phone number outlook customer service number outlook support number microsoft outlook support phone number outlook customer support phone number outlook phone number outlook technical support number outlook support phone number outlook support phone number Microsoft office phone support microsoft office support number microsoft office phone number microsoft office support phone number microsoft office contact number microsoft office contact microsoft office help number microsoft office customer service number microsoft office customer service phone number, microsoft customer service, microsoft customer service number, microsoft customer service phone number, microsoft customer support, microsoft customer support number, microsoft customer support phone number, microsoft customer care number, microsoft customer service and support, microsoft customer service chat, microsoft customer service email, microsoft customer service telephone number, microsoft customer support phone, customer service for Microsoft, customer service Microsoft, customer service number for Microsoft, customer support Microsoft, microsoft account customer service, what is the toll free customer service number at Microsoft, call microsoft customer service microsoft phone number, microsoft phone, microsoft phone support, how to contact Microsoft, phone number for Microsoft, contact microsoft by phone, microsofts phone number, microsoft phone activation, microsoft phone number supportmicrosoft phone number tech support, microsoft phone number usa, microsoft phone numbers, microsoft phone support number, contact number for Microsoft, contacting Microsoft, how do i contact Microsoft, how to contact microsoft by phone, microsoft store contact, microsoft store phone number, microsoft store support, number for Microsoft, number to Microsoft, phone number Microsoft, phone number to Microsoft microsoft help desk, microsoft help number, microsoft help phone number, microsoft help chat, microsoft help line, microsoft helpline, microsoft help and support, microsoft help center, microsoft help desk number, microsoft help desk phone number, microsoft help forum, microsoft helpline number,  microsoft tech support, microsoft tech support number, microsoft tech support phone number, microsoft technical support, microsoft technical support phone number, microsoft technical support number, call microsoft tech support, call microsoft technical support, microsoft tech support chat, microsoft tech support phone, microsoft tech support phone number usa, microsoft tech support toll free, phone number for microsoft tech support, microsoft contact , microsoft contact number, microsoft contact us, microsoft contact email, microsoft contact info, microsoft contact information, microsoft contact manager, microsoft contact number usa, microsoft contact phone number, microsoft contact support, microsoft contacts, microsoft number, microsoft chat support, microsofts number, microsoft email support, what is microsofts number, microsoft number support, microsoft number usa, microsoft numbers, microsoft chat help, contact microsoft email, microsoft call, microsoft call center, how to call Microsoft, whats microsofts number, microsoft activation phone number microsoft account help microsoft account support microsoft billing phone number microsoft activation number microsoft activation support microsoft account phone number microsoft account service is unavailable microsoft billing number microsoft billing support, microsoft telephone number, microsoft telephone support, microsoft toll free number, microsoft toll free number usa, microsoft 1 800 number, microsoft 1800 number, buy microsoft outlook, buy microsoft outlook 2010, buy outlook, buy outlook 2010, buy outlook for mac, upgrade outlook, upgrade outlook 2010 to 2013, upgrade outlook connector, best buy outlook, best buy outlook email, best buy outlook web access, purchase microsoft outlook, purchase outlook, purchase outlook 2010, purchase outlook 2013, outlook best buy, outlook upgradeimport gmail contacts to outlook, import outlook contacts, import outlook contacts to gmail, import outlook contacts to icloud, import outlook contacts to iphone, importing contacts into outlook, importing outlook contacts, import contacts from excel to outlook, import contacts from outlook to gmail, import contacts into outlook, import contacts into outlook 2010, import contacts outlook, import contacts outlook 2010, import contacts to outlook, import contacts to outlook 2010, import contacts to outlook from excel, outlook help, outlook help desk, outlook help number, outlook email help, outlook mail help, microsoft outlook 2010 help, microsoft outlook email help, microsoft outlook help, microsoft outlook help desk, ms outlook help, outlook.com help, outlook.com support, outlook calendar help, outlook.com contacts, setup outlook, setup outlook 2013, setup outlook 2013 for gmail, setup outlook for gmail, setup outlook for office 365, setup outlook on android, setup outlook on iphone, office 365 outlook setup, office 365 setup outlook, outlook 2007 export contacts, outlook 2010 contacts, outlook 2010 contacts file, outlook 2010 export contacts, outlook 2010 help, outlook 2010 import contacts, outlook 2010 product key, outlook 2010 setup, outlook 2013 help, outlook 365 help, outlook 365 pricing, export gmail contacts to outlook, export iphone contacts to outlook, export outlook 2007 contacts, export outlook 2010 contacts, export outlook contacts, export outlook contacts to excel, export outlook contacts to gmail, exporting contacts from outlook, exporting outlook contacts, exporting outlook contacts to excel, outlook duplicate contacts, outlook export contacts, outlook import contacts, outlook merge contacts, outlook shared contacts, sync gmail contacts with outlook, sync google contacts with outlook, sync google contacts with outlook 2013, sync outlook contacts with gmail, sync outlook contacts with google, transfer contacts from outlook to gmail, transfer outlook contacts, transfer outlook contacts to gmail, gmail outlook setup, gmail setup for outlook, gmail setup in outlook, gmail setup in outlook 2013, gmail setup outlook, outlook gmail setup, outlook customer service, outlook customer service number, outlook customer support, outlook customer support phone number, outlook email customer service, outlook email support phone number, microsoft outlook customer service, microsoft outlook customer support phone number, microsoft outlook phone number, outlook phone number,  microsoft outlook tech support, microsoft outlook tech support phone number, microsoft outlook technical support phone number, outlook tech support, outlook tech support number, outlook technical support, outlook technical support number, outlook technical support phone number
  45. Apple support number | Dec 13, 2017
    Apple Support Phone Number is here to help. Contact Apple Support Number by phone for iPhone, iPad, Mac, and more. Call +1-833-802-0003 apple support number apple phone number apple number apple support phone number apple support chat apple.com support contact apple support apple help number apple contact number apple store number call apple support apple id support apple store phone number phone number for apple support apple phone support apple tech support apple tech support number apple technical support apple tech support phone number, apple technical support phone number, apple technical support number, apple store tech support, apple store technical support, call apple tech support, apple technical support phone, apple tech support chat, apple technical support phone number usa, apple tech support phone, apple tech help, phone number for apple tech support, apple id support number apple id support number apple id support phone number create apple id forgot apple id password reset apple id forgot apple id apple id reset change apple id password how to change apple id reset apple id password apple id password reset I forgot apple id create an apple id iphone help apple iphone support apple iphone support number iphone 6 help iphone customer service iphone support iphone support number apple iphone customer service apple iphone help, iphone tech support, apple iphone support phone number, apple iphone tech support, iphone 4 help, iphone 5 help, iphone 5 support, iphone 5s help, iphone customer service number, iphone customer support, iphone help number, iphone helpline, iphone number, iphone phone number, iphone technical support, apple i phone support, apple iphone 4 support, apple iphone contact, apple iphone customer service phone number, apple iphone customer support, apple iphone help number, apple iphone helpline, apple iphone model numbers, apple iphone number, apple iphone number support, apple iphone phone number, apple iphone service, apple iphone service center, apple iphone tech support number, apple iphone tech support phone number, apple iphone technical support, mac support mac help sync contacts from iPhone to mac how to import contacts from iPhone to mac mac support number mac customer service mac tech support apple mac support import contacts from iPhone to mac mac technical support mac support phone number transfer contacts from iPhone to mac application support mac how to get contacts from iPhone to mac syncing contacts from iPhone to mac sync iPhone contacts to mac mac helpline mac number mac customer support mac support chat apple mac support number mac phone number mac help desk mac services mac online support mac support virus mac support store apple mac help how to save contacts from iPhone to mac sync iPhone contacts with mac apple support mac iPad help iPad support apple iPad support how to sync contacts from iPhone to iPad apple iPad help how to transfer contacts from iPhone to iPad iPad tech support apple support iPad sync contacts from iPhone to iPad transfer contacts from iPhone to iPad iPad support number apple iPad support number apple iPad support phone number add contacts to iPad iPad support phone number apple support number iPad iPad technical support help with iPad iPad customer support import contacts to iPad sync iPhone contacts to iPad apple help iPad, iPad helpline, syncing contacts from iPhone to iPad, contacts from iPhone to iPad, iPad help printer setup, help iPad, iPad calendar help, apple customer service number for iPad, iPad tech support phone number, iPad apple support, iPad tech support number, macbook support, macbook technical support, macbook tech support, macbook support phone number, macbook support number, macbook service, macbook pro technical support, macbook pro tech support, macbook pro support,macbook pro service, macbook pro help, macbook pro customer service, macbook helpline, macbook help, macbook customer service, macbook air support, macbook air help, apple support macbook pro, apple support macbook air,apple support macbook, apple support for macbook pro, apple macbook support number,apple macbook support, apple macbook pro support, apple macbook pro help, apple macbook help, apple macbook air support, macintosh support , macintosh help, macintosh services, macintosh tech support, macintosh service, macintosh customer service
  46. Antivirus support number | Dec 13, 2017
    Antivirus Support -Contact for assistance on Antivirus, Internet Security, and security software. Make your computer secure and virus free.  norton support norton customer service norton phone number norton antivirus phone number norton 360 support norton number norton support number norton antivirus customer service norton tech support norton phone support norton contact number norton 360 phone number norton help norton customer support norton contact contact Norton norton customer service phone number norton support phone number norton security phone number norton customer service number norton antivirus support norton chat support norton technical support, norton 360 phone support, norton 360 customer service, norton tech support number, norton antivirus contact number, norton antivirus customer service phone number, norton phone, norton tech support phone number, norton technical support phone number, contact norton antivirus, norton telephone number, norton antivirus support phone number, phone number for norton antivirus   mcafee support mcafee customer service mcafee phone number mcafee phone support mcafee support number mcafee customer service number mcafee number mcafee technical support mcafee customer support mcafee contact mcafee contact us mcafee customer service phone number mcafee help mcafee support phone number contact mcafee mcafee technical support phone number mcafee tech support service mcafee mcafee chat support, mcafee customer support number, mcafee technical support number, mcafee contact number, phone number for mcafee, mcafee tech support phone number, mcafee tech support number, mcafee telephone number, mcafee gold support Trend micro phone number trend micro support number trend micro contact contact trend micro trend micro customer service phone number trend micro support phone number Avast phone number avast antivirus tech support phone number avast customer service phone number avast contact avast customer service telephone number avast antivirus customer service phone number AVG phone number AVG contact number AVG support phone number AVG customer service phone number AVG support number contact AVG AVG contact AVG antivirus customer service phone number AVG customer service phone number USA AVG antivirus customer support phone number Bitdefender phone number Bitdefender customer service phone number Bitdefender contact Bitdefender technical support phone number Bitdefender contact number contact Bitdefender Bitdefender tech support phone number Kaspersky phone number Kaspersky support number Kaspersky contact number Kaspersky contact Kaspersky technical support phone number Kaspersky customer service number contact Kaspersky kaspersky technical support number Kaspersky tech support phone number Kaspersky tech support number kaspersky phone support webroot phone number webroot contact webroot support number contact webroot webroot technical support phone number webroot contact number webroot antivirus customer service phone number webroot support phone number, norton renewal, norton 360 renewal, norton 360 deals, norton discount code, buy norton 360, norton 360 sale, buy norton antivirus, norton annual renewal, norton antivirus renewal, norton antivirus deals, buy norton, norton sales, norton student discount, norton 360 price, norton deals, norton subscription, norton 360 discount, norton 360 best price, norton renewal code, norton antivirus best buy, norton antivirus sale, norton 360 on sale, norton discount, cheap norton 360, norton antivirus price, norton 360 discount code, buy norton internet security, norton 360 best buy, best buy norton antivirus, best buy norton 360, norton internet security renewal, renew norton, renew norton 360, norton for sale, norton antivirus discount, norton price, norton internet security deals, norton internet security renewal code, norton 360 renewal code, buy norton com, best buy norton, norton 360 for sale, norton sale, cheap norton antivirus, norton 360 cheap, norton 360 deal, norton security deals, norton mobile security cost, norton subscription renewal code, mcafee subscription, mcafee renewal, mcafee discount, mcafee price, mcafee auto renewal, mcafee cost, mcafee subscription cost, buy mcafee antivirus, buy mcafee, mcafee discount code, renew mcafee, get avast, avast discount, avast price, avast cost, avast subscription, avast renewal, avast deals, buy avast, buy avast antivirus, renew avast, bitdefender discount coupon, bitdefender discount, bitdefender sale, bitdefender deals, buy bitdefender, bitdefender price, buy bitdefender total security 2015, bitdefender best buy, bitdefender renewal, bitdefender student discount, bitdefender best price, trend micro best buy, trend micro renewal, best buy trend micro, renew trend micro, trend micro discount, trend micro deals, buy trend micro, best buy webroot, webroot best buy, webroot renewal, webroot discount, webroot deals, webroot sale, webroot pricing, webroot price, webroot subscription, webroot renewal discount
  47. Alpha writing service | Dec 13, 2017
    Alpha writing services provide you the best in class, plagiarism free and value for money blog at your convenient time from expert Writers. custom writing best custom writing custom writings cheap custom research papers custom paper custom written papers writing custom best custom paper writing service best custom writing service buy custom papers cheap custom papers custom writing help custom written custom written research papers custom written term papers professional custom writing service custom writing online Blog writing service blog writing services best blog writing services blog content writing services cheap blog writing service blog writing service reviews custom blog writing service cheapest blog writing service cheap blog writing services cheap custom blog writing services top blog writing service best blog writing service reviews professional blog writing service professional blog writing service online blog writing service Content writing service content writing service website content writing services seo content writing services web content writing services best writing service reviews cheap content writing service best content writing service content writing service reviews custom content writing service cheapest content writing service cheap content writing services cheap custom content writing services top content writing service best content writing service reviews professional content writing service online content writing service Article writing service article writing services seo article writing service best article writing service article rewriting service seo article writing services cheap article writing service article writing service reviews custom article writing service cheapest article writing service cheap article writing services cheap custom article writing services top article writing service best article writing service reviews professional article writing service online article writing service academic research paper academic writing help academic assignment academic assignment help academic assignment writing academic writing online academic writing sites academic writing websites best academic writing service online academic writing cheap creative writing service best creative writing service creative writing service reviews custom creative writing service creative writing service cheapest creative writing service cheap creative writing services cheap custom creative writing services top creative writing service best creative writing service reviews professional creative writing service online creative writing service Ghostwriting service ghost writing service ghost writing services ghostwriter services ghostwriting service ghostwriting services rates professional ghostwriting services cheap ghostwriting service best ghostwriting service ghostwriting service reviews custom ghostwriting service college ghostwriting service cheapest ghostwriting service cheap ghostwriting services cheap custom ghostwriting services top ghostwriting service best ghostwriting service reviews professional ghostwriting service online ghostwriting service Professional proofreading service proofreading and editing services professional proofreading service essay proofreading service proof reading service proof reading services proofreading services online online proofreading service online proofreading services proofreading services rates proofreading services reviews best proofreading service proofread service proofreading and copy editing services academic proofreading services best online proofreading service book proofreading services paper proofreading service proofreading editing services proofreading services free cheap proofreading service Book editing service editing service essay editing service professional editing services copy editing services online editing services editing services rates novel editing services paper editing service college essay editing service copy editing service editing services online english editing services online editing service paper editing services academic editing services editing services for books English editing service personal statement editing service writing and editing services book editing service Copywriting service seo copywriting services copywriting service copywriter services copywriting services prices website copywriting services seo copywriting service copywriting services for websites web copywriting services cheap copywriting service best copywriting service copywriting service reviews custom copywriting service college copywriting service cheapest copywriting service cheap copywriting services cheap custom copywriting services top copywriting service best copywriting service reviews professional copywriting service online copywriting service Resume writing service Professional resume writing service Best resume writing service Top rated resume writing services Top resume writing services Best resume writing services Executive resume writing services Federal resume writing services Best resume writing 2014 Best resume writing 2015 CV writing services
  48. Quickbooks Phone Number | Dec 12, 2017
    There are many enterprise that use the application for managing their account of business efficiently and conveniently. While accessing Intuit, there are chances that you may face certain errors or issuse that need to be removed as quickly as possible through the technical support on Quickbooks Phone Number.
  49. lukenlow | Dec 12, 2017
    I think this is a huge progress, thanks to those people who are involved in this remarkable discovery 192.168.l.l
  50. Login | Dec 11, 2017

    Super! THanks for sharing this info

    192.168.100.1

    Leave a comment